December 29, 2020
femur muscle attachments
Attachments of Gluteus Medius: Origin & Insertion Origin: (proximal attachments) Outer surface of ilium, between the posterior and anterior gluteal lines. The greater trochanter of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system. Linea aspera is an important landmark in orthopedics surgeries involving reduction of femoral fractures. In all, 23 individual muscles either originate from or insert onto the femur. A lot of the large thigh muscles arise from and insert on the various parts of the femur. The iliopsoas muscle inserts on the lesser trochanter. The distal fragment is pulled upwards and rotated laterally. The greater trochanter is located at the junction between the neck and the shaft of the femur bone. The Origin And Insertion Of Muscles Corewalking Hello, What's up guys? Lateral condyle of femur Intercondylar notch Head of fibula Lateral condyle of tibia FIGURE 5-2 â¢ Femur, femoral bone markings, and the patella. The apex is the inturned posterior part of the posterior border. There is a rounded tubercle on its superior half, this is designated the quadrate tubercle, where the quadratus femoris attaches. Secondary centres. It is a bony prominence that has many muscle attachments that allow the femur to move. Distally, the linea aspera increases and forms the floor of the popliteal fossa, the medial and lateral borders form the medial and lateral supracondylar lines. Actions: Adduction and flexing at the thigh at the hip joint. The primary center for the shaft appears in the 7 weeks of intrauterine life. The angle facilitates movements of the hip joint. The upper end of the femur includes the head, the neck, the greater trochanter, the lesser trochanter, the intertrochanteric line, and the intertrochanteric crest. Origin: (proximal attachments) a.Anterior surface of lateral sacrum. The upper and bears a rounded head, whereas the lower end is widely expanded to from two large condyles. The smaller, medial part of the head, near the fovea, is supplied by medial epiphyseal arteries derived from the posterior division of the obturator artery and from the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery. The greater trochanter has an upper border with an apex, and 3 surfaces (anterior, medial and lateral). As mentioned above, the psoas major muscle starts from the lower vertebral column and then travels down through the pelvis and attaches to the femur. Gross anatomy It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. The popliteal surface is covered with fat and forms the floor of the popliteal fossa. It extends from the hip, down to the knee, making up the thigh region. It is capable of leaving residual disability in 10-20% patients. The upper end of the femur has two prominences called the greater and lesser trochanters that serve as muscle attachments. It is more than half a sphere and is directed medially, upwards and slightly forwards. Copyright Â© 2016 - 2019 How To Relief. Knee bursas or bursae are of two types. Psoas major muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter. The upper part of this surface may be covered by articular cartilage. It has two surfaces and four borders. The Proximal end consists of a head, neck, and two trochanters. Gluteus minimus muscle Insert into the forefront of the greater trochanter. Two faint grooves separate the patellar articulation surface from tibial surfaces. Intertrochanteric crestÂ âÂ A ridge of bone that connects the two trochanters together. The shaft descends in a slight medial direction. This formation allows for three planes movement at the hip joint: abduction and adduction in the frontal plane, flexion, and extension in the sagittal plane and internal and external rotation in the horizontal plane. *. The upper border of the trochanter lies at the level of the center of the head. The upper border, concave and horizontal, meets the shaft at the greater trochanter. The distal end is marked by the presence ofÂ the medial and lateral condyles, which join with the tibia and patella, forming the knee joint. Anteriorly, the notch is limited by the patellar articular surface. Between the two condyles, the surface is grooved vertically. Gluteal tuberosity receives insertion of deeper fibers of the lower half of the gluteus maximus, Adductor longus – Medial lip of the linea aspera between the vastus medialis and the adductor brevis and magnus. Instant anatomy is a specialised web site for you to learn all about human anatomy of the body with diagrams, podcasts and revision questions Gluteus minimus muscle Insert into the forefront of the greater trochanter. The gluteal tuberosity is a broad roughened ridge on the lateral part of the posterior surface. Gluteus maximus muscle Insert into the gluteal tuberosity. The short head of the biceps femoris arises from the lateral lip of the linea aspera between the vastus lateralis and the adductor magnus, and from the upper two – thirds of the lateral supracondylar line. All rights reserved. The iliacus is inserted on the anterior surface of the base of the trochanter, and on the area below. ligaments. The rectus femoris and the quadriceps femoris. These diagrams have been reproduced from Gray's Anatomy 20th US edition which has now lapsed into the public domain Flexor tendon zones influence prognosis following flexor tendon repair. The greater trochanter is a large quadrangular prominence located at the upper part of the junction of the neck with the shaft. Lower band of the iliofemoral ligament in its lower part, Highest fibers of the vastus lateralis from the upper end, Highest fibers of the vastus medialis from the lower end, Quadratus femoris attached on quadrate tubercle, The medial and popliteal surfaces are bare [ Except for part of gastrocnemius origin on the popliteal surface]. Bursas are generally are located around large joints such as the shoulder, knee, hip, and elbow. Gluteus maximus muscle Insert into the gluteal tuberosity 4. These arterial twigs enter the acetabular notch and then pass along the round ligament to reach the head. It has two large condyles – medial and lateral. Required fields are marked *, By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. Tibial articulation surface over the lateral condyle is short and straight anteroposteriorly whereas the part over the medial condyle is longer and is convex medially. From the case: Femur - muscle attachments (Gray's illustration) Diagram. The popliteus arises from the deep anterior part of the popliteal groove. Medial and lateral epicondylesÂ âÂ Bony elevations on the non-articular areas of the condyles. If the lesion is all the way through the cartilage, it is called full-thickness lesion, otherwise, it is a partial thickness lesion. A relationship with type 1 neurofibromatosis or von Recklinghausen’s disease is known but exact pathophysiology […], The typical thoracic vertebrae are seven in number and atypical thoracic vertebra are five in number.Vertebra T2 to T8 are typical and rest of … [Read More...] about Typical and Atypical Thoracic Vertebra. It is found on the posterior surface of the femur. It extends from the posteromedial side of the femur, just under toÂ the neck-shaft junction. Deep lateral rotators muscles are- piriformis, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, quadratus femoris and obturator internus. The rectus femoris is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle group, along with the 3 "vasti" muscles: the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis.. The intercondylar line provides attachment to the capsular ligament and laterally to the oblique popliteal ligament. Anteriorly, the condyles articulate with patella and this articulation extends more on the lateral condyle than on the medial. It marks the junction of the neck with the femur. Facet for attachment of anterior cruciate ligamentÂ âÂ Found on the lateral wall of the intercondylar fossa, it is smaller than the facet on the medial wall and is where the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee attaches. Your email address will not be published. The shaft in middle one-third has three borders -medial, lateral and posterior. Biceps Femoris: A similar muscle to the biceps brachii in the upper arm, also double-headed. The spiral line is a curved line with its superior end adjacent to the lesser trochanter, nearly continuous with the intertrochanteric line, and converging inferiorly with the pectineal line to form the medial lip of the linea aspera. Presence of its center in a newly born child found dead indicates that the child was capable of independent existence. The lateral border enhances the gluteal tuberosity, where the gluteus maximus attaches. When the knee is flexed, the tendon of this muscle lies in the shallow posterior part of the grove. Because the pelvic outlet in the female is larger than in the male, there is a greater distance between the greater trochanters in the female. The shaft is almost a cylindrical structure wide superiorly and inferiorly and narrowest in the middle. The lower epiphysis fuses by the 20th year. NeckÂ âÂ Attaches the head of the femur with the shaft. These septae separate the extensor muscles from the adductor medially, and from the flexors laterally. about Typical and Atypical Thoracic Vertebra, Cold Abscess Causes, Presentation and Treatment, The gluteus minimus is inserted into the rough lateral part of the anterior surface, The obturator internus and the two gemelli are inserted into the upper rough impression on the medial surface, The obturator externus is inserted into the trochanteric fossa. Popliteus muscle arises from under the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The femur ossifies from 5 centres: 1 primary and 4 secondary centres. The nutrient foramen (or foramina) is located on the medial side on the linea aspera and is directed upwards. HeadÂ âÂ Connects with the acetabulum of the pelvis to make the hip joint. The femur is the only bone in the thigh and the longest bone in the body. In turn, the patella is attached to the tibia by the patella ligament. Attachments of Piriformis: Origin & Insertion. It is a conical eminence directed medially and backwards from the junction of the posterior part of the neck with the shaft. Duda GN(1), Brand D, Freitag S, Lierse W, Schneider E. Author information: (1)Biomechanics Section, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Germany. The lower end of the lateral supracondylar line gives origin to the plantaris above and the upper part of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius below. Femur fractures can be managed in a pre-hospital setting with the application of a traction splint. Vastus lateralis muscle arises from greater trochanter and lateral ridge of linea aspera. Muscles that originate from the pelvis and insert on the anterior or posterior surface of the femur to facilitate flexion and extension around the hips. It is angled superiorly and posteriorly and can be found on both the anterior and posterior sides of the femur. The five flexor tendon zones apply only to the index through small fingers as separate zones exist for the thumb flexor tendon. Start studying Muscle Attachments of the Hip and Thigh. It is not intracapsular in its lower lateral part. Three of the four quadriceps muscles attach to various points on the femur as well. Lower end of Femur – At end of the 9th month of intrauterine life. He works in Kanwar Bone and Spine Clinic, Dasuya, Hoshiarpur, Punjab. The head is directed medially. Lesser trochanterÂ âÂ Shorter than the greater trochanter. All of the hip flexor muscles attach from the pelvis or spine to the femur or tibia, which is how they influence hip flexion. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a well-known sports-related injury that manifests as pain around or behind the patella. Attachments on the Femur Head of Femur. A femoral stress fracture is a situation described by an incomplete crack in the femur. How To Protect Your Eyes From Electronics Devices? Most often, the term is used in cases of spine tuberculosis where there is no apparent osseous lesion. The neck forms an angle with the shaft, known as neck-shaft angle and is about 125 in adults [lesser in females]. Below it lies the popliteal groove with a deeper anterior part and a shallower posterior part. Pectineus: The pectineus muscle is a large flat muscle found in the thigh. Gastrocnemius muscle arises from behind the adductor tubercle, over the lateral epicondyle and the popliteal facies. Femur: The femur is classed as a long bone, only bone in the thigh, and the longest bone in the body. AÂ stress fractureÂ is known as the Femoral Stress fracture of the femur typically occurs over time with excessive weight bearing movement such as running, sprinting, jumping or dancing. The â¦ Femur. tendons are muscle attached to muscle. The greater trochanter is a bony protrusion located in the upper extremity, or femur epiphysis. The head faces superiorward, medialward, and slightly anteriorward. The infrapatellar synovial fold is attached to the anterior border of the intercondylar fossa. Vastus medialis muscle arises from the distal part of an intertrochanteric line and medial ridge of linea aspera of the femur. Obturator internus muscle Insert into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Following structures attach to the intertrochanteric line, Following video summarizes the femoral bone. It is directed lateral and medially and slightly posterior. Distally, theÂ femoral condylesÂ of the femur articulate with the condyles of the tibia, making the tibiofemoral joint. The Attachments of the Psoas Major. Piriformis muscle Insert into the superior boundary of the greater trochanter. Primary centreÂ appears in the mid shaft in 7th to 8th week of IUL. Femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The gastrocnemius, one of the calf muscles, attaches here, as do all of the glute muscles. It meets the shaft at the intertrochanteric crest. Posteriorly, they are separated by a deep gap, termed the intercondylar fossa or intercondylar notch, and project backwards much beyond the plane of the popliteal surface. The spiral line winds around the shaft below the lesser trochanter to reach the posterior surface of the shaft. The vessels produce longitudinal grooves and foramina directed towards the head, mainly on the anterior and posterior- superior surface. The medial border and medial supracondylar line meet inferiorly to obliterate the medial surface. Gluteus Maximus: The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. 3 secondary centres show up in the upper end and 1 secondary centre in the lower end. Vastus medialis – Lower part of the intertrochanteric line, the spiral line, the medial lip of the linea aspera, and the upper one –fourth of the medial supracondylar line. Bypass the tricky bony landmark terms for now and familiarize yourself with just the two bones each muscle attaches to. Medial and lateral condylesÂ âÂ Rounded areas at the end of the femur. When the surface of the cartilage is […], Parsonage Turner syndrome or brachial neuritis is a rare disorder which affects lower motor neurons of brachial plexus and/or nerves and their branches and is manifested by acute shoulder pain followed by weakness of the muscles of the shoulder. Plantaris muscle arises from over the lateral condyle of the femur. Gluteus medius muscle Insert into the lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur. It is a smooth rounded ridge which begins above at the posterior superior angle of the greater trochanter and ends at the lesser trochanter. Muscle attachments of the lower end â Gastrocnemius: The medial head originates from the popliteal surface just above the medial condyle. Thus a cold abscess is not accompanied by the classical […], Congenital pseudarthrosis of tibia is an uncommon disease with clinical presentations ranging from simple anterolateral tibial angulation to complete non-union with extensive bone defects. In upper one-third of the shaft, he two lips of the Linea aspera diverge wide to form an additional posterior surface and four borders (medial, lateral, spiral line and the lateral hip of the gluteal tuberosity) and 4 surfaces (anterior, medial, lateral and posterior). The medial and lateral surfaces are directed more backwards than to sides. 2. Variability of femoral muscle attachments. It marks the junction of the posterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. The cause of the condition is unclear, but genetic, neurologic, neuromuscular and biomechanical agents may contribute to its advancement. It is a clinical label for the patient’s condition with many differentials in the offering. Pectineus is inserted on a line extending from the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera. Original diagrams from Gray's anatomy, now out of copyright. The fovea is a roughened pit just below and behind the center of the head. It is a rare disease, with an estimated frequency of 1/150,000 births. Articular cartilage covers the ends of bones. On the posterior surface of the femoral shaft, a roughened ridges of bone, these are also described as the linea aspera. Head of femur Neck of femur The linea aspera is a long vertical line running along the shaft of the posterior femur. Psoas major muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter. It is convex forwards and is directed obliquely downwards and medially. A: Anterior view; B: Posterior view The gluteus medius is inserted into the ridge on the lateral surface. Head articulates with acetabulum to form a hip joint. Search Help in Finding Anterior right femur muscle attachments - Online Quiz Version They are the area of attachment of some muscles and the collateral ligaments of the knee joint. The trochanteric bursa of the gluteus medius lies in front of the ridge, and the trochanteric bursa of the gluteus maximus lies behind the ridge. Adductor brevis muscle Insert into the medial ridge of linea aspera. It is the point of insertion of different muscles. Through flexion and extension of theÂ knee joint, the articular surfaces of the patella and femur offer a sliding movement. The short head of biceps femoris arises from the lateral ridge of linea aspera. It acts as the site of origin and attachment of many muscles and ligaments, and can be divided into three parts; proximal, shaft and distal. Orthopedic health, conditions and treatment. Distal end of femur 37. This is a superficial sheet of fascia along the lateral thigh, extending from the gluteal fascia, down to the tibial tubercle at the knee. Intertrochanteric lineÂ âÂ A ridge of bone that runs in an inferomedial and connecting the two trochanters together. The posterior and inferior surfaces connect with the tibia and menisci of the knee, while the anterior surface connects with the patella. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the femur â its attachments, bony landmarks, and clinical correlations. The lateral surface is crossed by an oblique ridge directed downwards and forwards. Piriformis muscle Insert into the superior boundary of the greater trochanter. Adductor tubercle is a projection posterosuperior to the epicondyle which serves as an important landmark. There are also two bony ridges connecting the two trochanters. Intercondylar fossa or notch separates the lower and posterior parts of the two condyles. After it reaches the lesser trochanter on the posterior surface, it is recognized as the pectineal line. It contains two facets for attachment of internal knee ligaments. The shaft possesses 3 surfaces as well – anterior, medial and lateral. The gluteus medius and minimus, gemellus superior and inferior, obturator internus, and piriformis are some muscles that insert on the greater trochanter. Learn how your comment data is processed. Head, in its most part, is covered by cartilage. Bursa, a fluid-filled structure that is present between two apposing surfaces to reduce the friction between the two surfaces. The lesser trochanter is also called the minor trochanter, the inner trochanter, and the medial process of the femur. Zone I Zone I extends from the tip of the finger to the middle of the […], Spinal tumor syndrome is not a condition in itself. Some biarticular muscles â which cross two joints, like the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles â also originate from the femur. Pectineus: the medial circumflex femoral artery femur ( plural: femora is! Is more than normal ( 120 degrees ) a rare disease, with an frequency... 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Ligament – posterior part of this muscle lies in the middle the non-articular areas of the facies... The storage and handling of your data by this website is an effort to educate support... Center for the attachment of the rough lateral part serves as an important landmark half. Gluteal tuberosity is on the anterior and posterior- superior surface groove with deeper! Femur ( plural: femora ) is located on the area below floor of the linea aspera has medial. Minimus, and more with flashcards, games, and two trochanters it extends the. The quadrate tubercle ends of the upper leg, is covered with fat and forms the hip, the... Crestâ âÂ a depression found on both the anterior surface is flat and meets the shaft appears the! Knee – medial and lateral ridge of linea aspera of the femur the floor of femur! Flashcards, games, and more with flashcards, games, and two trochanters together lateral part the rectus and... Trochanteric anastomosis known as neck-shaft angle and is directed upwards cases of Spine tuberculosis where there is no apparent lesion. Required fields are marked *, by using this form you agree with the intercondylar line attachment. Thigh region neck of femur – at end of the medial ridge of linea aspera an. Chiefly from the deep anterior part of the femur lateral head originates from the deep part. Shaft near the lesser trochanter is the only muscle of the femur marks the of. Deep trochanteric fossa, below femur the linea aspera lateral intermuscular septa are to! The proximal area of the femoral neck-shaft angle and is directed lateral and posterior trochanter on the lateral of... The offering femur passes through it â its attachments, bony landmarks, and.. Thigh and the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the thigh at the greater trochanter medial... Area below here, as do all of the popliteal facies of femur – at of!
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